Mrs. Maree is experiencing kidney failure. For the last five years, she has been undergoing dialysis. She is also a diabetic patient and has been having insulin injection on a daily basis.
How diabetes can affect kidney and cause kidney failure
This type of diabetes mainly occurs to people who are above 40 years old.
Diabetes type two is the main cause of kidney diseases. High levels of glucose in the blood cause damages on very small blood vessels in the kidney. This leads to impairment of their ability filter blood in the most appropriate way. Consequently a type of ‘albumin’ leaks into the urine rather than being processed into the blood stream. A small amount of protein in the urine is referred to as micro-albuminuria. As the kidney disease develops, the amount of protein in the urine increases. This kind of condition is referred to as proteinuria. This leads to eventual failure if proper treatment is not administered. Dialysis or kidney transplant will therefore be inevitable.
Diabetes can also damage the nerves which inform that the bladder is full. Excessive pressure from the full bladder can easily damage the kidney. It is also important to note that when urine remains in the bladder for long, it increases the risk of getting urinary tract infection that can eventually spread to the bladder.
High levels of insulin lead to build-up of plague in the blood vessels. High levels of sugar damages the kidney microvasculature through oxidative stress and inflammation. Pancreas fails to produce adequate insulin which allows glucose to find its way into the blood cells. This basically results into increased levels of sugar in the blood stream and eventually into the kidney causing kidney failure. It is recommended that the right amount of insulin is used to maintain the required sugar levels.
Liao M., Sung C., Hung K., Wu C., Lo L., & Lu K 2012, Insulin Resistance in Patients with Chronic Kidney Disease, Hindawi Publishing Corporation. Journal of Biomedicine and Biotechnology, Article ID 691369.